Thrissur Pooram – Pooram Of Cultural Capital 2018
Life in Kerala is punctuated by the annual festivals dedicated to village deities. These post-harvest festivals are an occasion to break out of the monotony of daily routine. The size and importance of this festival may vary from small gathering to mega spectacle like Thrissur pooram. There are other Pooram festivals in and around the central Kerala which may stand better than Thrissur pooram in some respect. But the beauty of Thrissur pooram is in every respect Thrissur pooram stands better than the best.
The Thrissur Pooram is considered to be the Mother of all Poorams, a culture highlight that towers above all other festivals .Thrissur pooram is a festival unique in its pageantry, magnitude and participation. It is not a mere temple festival in its strict sense but at the same time it is the festival of festivals of Kerala.
The Thrissur Pooram, celebrated in the Malayalam month Of Medom (April-May) is a grand assembly of Gods and Goddesses in and around Thrissur. These Gods and Goddesses make their visit to the Vadakumnathan Temple premises on caparisoned elephants accompanied by grand ensembles of Chenda melam and pancha vadyam.
The Ten participants of the Pooram are the Thiruvambady Bhagavathi and Paramekkavu Bhagavathi, Nethilakkavu Bhagavathi, Karamukku Bhagavathi, Ayyanthole Bhagavathi, Laloor Bhagavathi, Choorakkattukavu Bhagavathi, Chembukkavu Bhagavathi, Panamukkumpally Sastha, Kanimangalam Sastha. The processions and rituals of each of these deities follow a very strict itinerary, scheduled in such a way that the tempo of the Pooram celebrations – 36 hrs non-stop – is maintained without any loss of energy.
Very many stories are told and retold about the origin of Thrissur pooram. Thrissur pooram is 200 plus years young and before that the “Arattupuzha pooram” conducted at Arattupuzha, some 16 km away from Vadakumnathan was the biggest temple festival of Kerala. All the temples participating Thrissur pooram and Kuttanellore pooram was the regular participant of “Arattupuzha pooram” .Once these temples were delayed to attend the festival due to heavy rain or so and then chief of Peruvanam Gramam denied the entry. As an act of reprisal Thrissur Naduvazhi the chief of Vadakunnathan, known as Yogadiripad and Kuttanellur Naduvazhi started the pooram in Thrissur. Later due to some reasons the Kuttanellur Naduvazhi disassociated the celebration at Thrissur. Since the withdrawal of Kuttanellur Naduvazhi the glamour of the pooram was lost and the two ‘Naduvazhies’ began to treat each other as enemies. It was in this juncture the former ruler of Cochin, His Highness Ramavarma Raja, popularly known as Sakthan Thampuran (1751-1805 AD) became the Maharaja of Kochi. Sakthan Thampuran unified the 10 temples situated around Vadakumnathan temple and took steps to celebrate Thrissur Pooram as a mass festival. Sakthan Thampuran classified the participants in to two groups the western and the Eastern The western group consist of Thiruvambady, Kanimangalam, Laloor, Ayyanthole, and Nethilakkavu temples. Paramekkavu, Karamukku, Chembukavu. Choorakottukavu and Panamukkamppilly comes under eastern group. The Maharaja re – organized the annual festival in its present form in front of Vadakumnathan. Sakthan Thampuran also directed the main temples at Thrissur, Paramekkavu and Thiruvambady to extent all support and help to other poorams which are coming from 2 to 10 KM. away from Vadakumnathan temple. Recently the Kanimangalam changed to eastern side. The event management of the whole pooram was chalked out by His Highness Sakthan Thamburan and followed iota till now.
There is an epilogue to the “Arattupuzha” pooram participation . While the Arattupuzha pooram has a history of more than 1000 years, Paramekkavu temple is 600 years old and Thiruvambady is still younger. Further Thiruvambady bagavathy, Paramekkavu baghavathy and Neithalkavu bagavathi are “Bhadra kali” deities.. Only Sastha’s or Durga’s are the participant of Arattupuzha pooram. The other seven participients of Thrissur pooram which’s ancientry dates back to early 8century A.D and are Sastha or durgha cult, may be regulars to Arattupuzha.
The Curtain Raisers
The pooram day: The temple opens at 04 am after the routine poojas, Arattu at 6.00 am and other rituals connected to pooram, “nadakkal para” starts. At 12.30 noon Devi comes out and the famous “purappadu” starts with 15 elephants. The melam starts with “Chempada” (longest in duration and magnificent in performance) during these Kudamattam will be performed. The pandy will start at 2.00pm and the procession moves to “Vadakumnathan” for the thrilling “elingithataramelam”. At 4.30pm the melam concludes and the procession exits through southern gopuram “thripuda” melam will accompany the procession. The procession will face the southern gopuram stationing at the round. Meanwhile thripuda will conclude after kombhupattu, and kuzalpattu “Panchari” will start. At 5.00 pm Thiruvambady bhagavathi will start decenting and the “Devine Durbar” will start with kudamattam. The greatest show on earth concludes at 6.45pm and Devi returns to temple with “Nadaswaram”.
Night pooram stats at 10.30pm with 7elephants with “Panchavadhyam”. The pooram moves through round west, round south and ends at Manikandanal pandal at 2.30am.
After the fire works day pooram starts at 7.30am and moves to Sreemoolasthanam with 15 elephants. Another thrilling experience with “pandy melam” and kudamattam pooram concludes at 11.30am. After the touching farewell with Thiruvambady bhagavathi Paramekkavu Bhagavathi returns with jubilant crowd to abode.
After “parayeduppu” and arattu at “pandijarchira” (western pond) Devi returns to temple and will be received with pandy melam. After kodical pooram Devi takes rest with uttrampattu.
The night pooram starts from madom at 11.30 pm with panchavadhyam and ends at naickanal pandal at 2.30am. Devi watches the fire works from 3.00 am to 6.00 am and starts the procession at 8.00 am to vadakunnathan with “pandy melam”. The pooram concludes at 12noon After the fare well devi returns. In the evening devi takes holy dip at padijare chira and returns the temple at 7.pm. After “kodikuthu” the pooram concludes.
The temple can be reached by road, hardly 300meters from Old gate stop, kanimangalam and through Ayyappankavu road. The kanimangalam Sastha is supposed to be the deva guru, who is allergic to sun and rain. Simple sreekovil with towering gopuram and small but beautiful pond, surrounded by kole land Sastha temple is famous for its ambience too.
An equally important temple Methevar Siva temple is just 100 meters away from this temple. Consecrated by “Thachanat” Moos and on decline of this family, these temples were merged to Valiyalukkal Group devaswom managed by PanmukkathuMaliyekkal Naduvazhy. This legendary naduvazhy forcibly brought 7 gold accruements and a gold Kolam from kuttanellore pooram to please erstwhile raja of Kochi… The legend may be the part of the rivalry between Kuttanellore and Thrissur which in turn caused the decline of Thrissur pooram.
Starting its journey on pooram day at 5 O’clock in the morning from the temple accompanied by Nadapandy and Nadaswaram and reaches Kulassery temple at Veliyannur. With 9 elephants, It reaches to round south from were it turns east and enter through Southern Gopuram of VadukkumnathaTemple and reaches Elinjithara. The kanimangalamsastha normally characterized as the guardian pooram is the only other pooram which is allowed to perform pandy melam at elanjithara Sree Vadakkumanathan pay great respects to Deva Guru and honour him opening Lord’s Thirunanda. The pooram passes through western gopuram to Sreemoolasthanam were the Pandy melam at its brisk point performed and finally ends the day pooram. The lord takes rest at kulassery temple By evening at 7pm. with panchavadhyam and five elephants, the Pooram starts from Kulassery temple and moves to sreemoolasthanam by round west, naduvilal. 9 O’clock the pooram concludes and the lord returns to kanimangalam. The next day with parayeduppu arattu, kodical pooram and kodikuthu celebrations concludes.
The temple is one among 108 Durga kshetras Vigneswara and Dharma sastha are sub deities here.The temple is about 2.5km of north west of vadakkumnathan Since the deity is allergic to sunstroke is forced to return on pooram day before the temperature rise and pleased to travel again in the wee hours according to legend. However the foremost offering is “Nai Vilakku” (Ghee is used instead of oil to lighten the lamp) in this temple substantiate the story of “Headache”. The chieftains of the foremost among the 32 grammas of Kerala (to be translated as corporations) Thrissur Namoodiries and Dutches had a long legal battle about the ownership of this temple. The history long back to 280 years. Another version of the story is simple, innocent and straight forward namboodiri families were drawn to this politics between His Excellency of Kochi & the Dutches.
It is believed that while digging for foundation the parts of this Kshetra was found and hence this temlple. The ooralan was Cungrathmenon family. Sri Kathiayani temple at Chembukkavu coming under the direct control of the Cochin Devaswam Board. With its proximity to the Paramekkavu and Thiruvambady temples and its rich tradition of giving spiritual solace to hundreds of its devotes, the temple plays a major role in the Thrissur Pooram .The temple had a face lift through the “naveekaranakalasa” during 2009.
The day starts with arattu and other rituals. Pooram starts at 7am with Panchavadhyam and nadaswaram and three caparisoned elephants the procession moves to Pooramparambhu through palace road. Bhagavathy enters through eastern gopuram to the Vadakumnatahan and complete the Panchavadhyam near southern gopuram. With melam Bhagavathy descents through the gopuram. And the day pooram ends. Since Bhagavathy is allergic to sun stroke, Devi returns to the temple in a hurry through Naikanal. The night pooram exits through western gopuram and ends at Nilapadu thara. Next evening with arattu, kodikkal pooram and kodikutthu the celebration concludes.
Ayyathole Bhagavathy another constituent of thrissur pooram pays a visit to Chembhukkavu Bhagavathy. The very next day after the kodiyettom Ayyanthole Bhagavathy pays a visit to Chembhukkavu temple and Chembhukavu Bhagavathy returns the visit. To mark the occasion a sandal wood piece is taken from chembhukavu by Ayyanthole Bhagavathy and in return a plate from ayyanthole by Chembhukavu Bhagavathy.
The Panamukkumpally Dharma Sastha Temple is situated about 2 kilometers east of Sree Vadakkumnathan Temple Thrissur. The idol, which is said to be 2500 years old, symbolizes Sree Dharma Sastha mediating in Padmasanam with a pot filled with Amrit A rare posture of Lord Sastha. The sub deities of the temple are Lord Shiva, Vinayaka and Nana Durga. It is believed selfless devotion and prayer, with complete dedication to the Lord Sastha can cure even major diseases. It is also very auspicious to begin education of children in divine presence.
Thekkemadom Swamiar who migrated to Thrissur constructed this temple at Kizhakkumpattukara for “SRI AYYAPPA” which they have brought along with. The decedents of Madom make customary visit to the Temple and offer Pushpanjalis to the Lord.
Years later, the Prominence of the Madom faded and that administration was handed over to Bharanasamithi elected by the devotees of Kizakkumpattukara This temple stopped to participate in Thrissur pooram in early 1900 A.D due to some silly excuses. With right support and guidance from thrissur pooram ekopana samithy, panamukkumppilly pooram was rejuvenated during 2002 and raised to full vigour by 2006.
The Panamukkumpally pooram will start at 7am from the temple with 3 decorated elephants accompanied by Panchavadhyam and Nadaswaram via East Fort Junction, college road and turns towards north and enter into Sri Vadakummnathan Temple via Eastern Gopuram. The panchavadhdyam concludes near southern gopuram. The same Process would repeat and the pooram ends in front of eastern gopuram in the night. The next day with kodical pooram the celebration concludes.
The famous Pookkattikara-Karamukku Temple is situated 5 kilometer from Vadakkumnathan Temple under Thrissur corporation. Through Ernakulam route or Thrissur – Kodungallur route the temple can be reached. Pookkattikkara – Karamukku Temple is built around paddy fields accompanied by the 2 acres wide “Karamukku Pond” a reservoir which is very helpful for perennial water supply for residents of the area and for sacred bath for devotees. This temple is a multi temple viz, Pookattikkara Siva temple & Karamukku Bagavathy temple. The earlier temple was in the southern side of the “Pookattikkara” village and brought to this place. Lord Parasurama brought some Namboodiri families from north Malabar to do the “Poojas” of Sri Vadakkumanatha temple. It is believed that this family brought their family deity “Lord Siva” along with them and hence the Pookattikkara temple. Karamukku Bagavathy is one among the 108 Durgalayas by Bargava Rama. The Karthiyani Devi along with her brother Krishna is the main deities of karamukku temple. Edampiri Ganapathy, Nandi (the holy bullock) and Siva are the deities of “Pookattikkara” Temple. When this is combined the Pookattikkara-Karamukku temple. Two prominent double Vatta SreeKovil (holy shrines), and another single Vatta Sreekovil is the the miniature of Sree vadakkumanatha temple.
The three balikallus shows the importance of this temple. The temple is the holy sum of three divine powers – Saiva, Vaishnava Saktheya. It is believed that “Khara” the saint who was the chief architect of many temples was stationed here. Another story is related to Ramayana. Khara an Asura warrior specialized in bow & arrow, challenged Lakshmana, for misbehaving Khar’s half sister “Soorpaneka”. The battle lasted for months finally khara was defeated. kara took assylam in this large pond for days to heal and hide. Khara mukku turned Karamukku While living in exile at Maliyekkal tharavadu, Sakthan thampuran used to take bath in this pond. Thampuran had a soft corner to this temple and when he returned to power he took over this temple complex Thampuran allotted 200 acres of paddy fields to maintain the temple.
On the seventh day after Tantric Poojas. Karamukku Bhagavati’s “Ezhunnallippu” starts Pooram muhurtham at 5 am. Along with “Nadaswram” and Nadapandi, the Ezhunnallippu reaches Kulassery temple. 3 elephants with Pandymelam the possession reaches “Manikanatanal Pandal” at 8 O’ clock. Here number of elephants increases to 9. The pandy melam witth more than 150 members moves to sreemolasthanam. This is the curtain raiser of famous “Elinjitara Melam”. The Pandimelam will be over by 9.30am at “Sreemoolastanam” and the deity go inside temple to pay respects to Lord Vadakkumanathan and exit to Southern gopuram. and returns to Kulassery Temple. Night pooram. In the evening 7pm the pooram starts from kulassery temple. With panchavadyam by more than 60 members and 3 elephants the pooram moves to sreemoolasthanam though manikandanal. Pooram ends at 10pm and after paying a visit to “Nilapaduthara” devi returns to chiyyaram. After proper rest in the day by evening after “Aarrattu” at Karamukku pond. “Utram Vilakku” Ezhunnallippu begins with 3 elephants. Pachari melam and fire works are the main attractions which is up to 10pm. With Tantric Pooja and Utram Pattu devi takes rest. Flag at temple and at Ollukkavu junction hoisted by devotees are driven down by the elephant with great jubilisation.
Laloor Sree Karthiyayini Temple is one among 108 Durgalayas by Saint Parasurama. The idol is Chathur bahu vigraha This temple is located at Laloor, 5Kms away from Sree Vadakumnatha temple in south – west direction. Laloor Sree Karthiyayini temple is distinct in many ways. There is no sub – shrines in the temple. The size of the “Valiya Balikkallu” is nearly 8 Feet high which shows that the type of prathistha. Temple architecture is closely connected to Sree ramatemple in Vadakkumnatha complex. The priests were from the same family who were head priest of Sree Rama temple The mural paintings are in the shrines. The Kerala style of architecture, the gothic style of mural painting of the temple are without any parallel. Once the temple was owned by Mannath family. Due to various reasons the temple started to decline.
After naveekaranakalasa and renovation the temple has returned to its earlier stage now Laloor:Gramadevatha of “Aranattukara”. Ooralan: Moolathadam Nair Family.
Laloor pooram has the privilege of the first pooram to hoist the pooram flag before noon of the “Kodiyettam” day. System followed is “Padahadhy” style. The next day o f “Kodiyettam” Laloor Bhagavathy, after daily rituals travels to Pookkattikkara -Karamukku temple. After the poojas there, Devi travels back to Laloor along with Karamukku Bhagavathy. It is believed that this courtesy call to fellow pooram participant was another extinct rituals where all ten participants followed once.
Laloor Pooram: On the seventh day after Tantric Poojas. Laloor Bhagavati’s “Ezhunnallippu” starts Pooram muhurtham at 6.30am Along with “Nadhaswram” and Panchavadhyam with five elephants, the Ezhunnallippu reaches at Naduvilal of Swaraj round. During the course of time the number of elephants increases to nine. The melam starts procession moves to Sreemoola Sthanam withPandymelam and ends at 10.30am the deity go inside temple to pay respects to Lord Vadakkumanathan and exit to Southern gopuram and returns to Laloor. Night Pooram starts at 6.30pm from the temple and the day time routine is repeated. Next day after “Kodikkal Pooram”, “Kodikkuth” and “Uthram Pattu” the celebration ends.
Choorakkottukavu Sree Durga Temple situates under the valley of Vilangankunnu, the famous Tourist Kendra in Trichur. It locates on the Eastern side of Trichur- Kunnamkulam Road. The distance from the Temple to Trichur town is only 8 K.M. this is one of the oldest Temples in Kerala. According to mythology the “Prathishta” of this Temple was done by Parasurama. . After passage of time the temple started to decline . Once a senior member of appat family found this deity covered with choral bushes.Then the public realized there is some sanctity for the place and a Temple was constructed there. One of the peculiarities of this Temple is that there is no roof for the Sanctum Sanctorum and subshrines
On the Trichur Pooram day at 6.30am Bhagavathy with all pomp and pageantry goes to Trichur Town accompanied by “Nadhaswaram”. The villagers and devotees follow to participate in the pooram. Pakal Pooram commences at 9.30am and ends at 11am. After pakal Pooram Bhagavathy takes rest in Paramekkavu Temple. The Paramekkavu pooram will start only after the choorakkottukave Bhagavathy reached in the Paramekkavu.”Rathri Pooram” commences at 10pm and ends at 12 O clock. On both occasions Chenda artists perform “Pandimelam”. Immediately after “Rathri Pooram” Bhagavathy returns to temple. On the next day with “Kodikkal Pooram” Pooram celebrations come to an end.
The temple is at ayyanthole some 1.5 km from the dist. headquarters Civil lines. The temple is one among the 108 Durgalayas. Lord Vishnu was born as the child of Devaki as Sreekrishna and the Adi parasakthy as the daughter of Yasodha. As directed by an oracle Vasudeva exchanged the new borns. As usual Kamsa tried to kill the new born baby by striking it against a rock. Mahamaya escaped from the hands of Kamsa by pushing on his shoulders. this concept is “Karthiyani” as per “mahabagavatha” Ayya means “Kamsa” and “thole” means shoulder and the combination is the Ayyanthole. The beautiful mural paintings decorate the walls of sanctum sanctorum.
Naveekarana kalasa was performed and the towering gopuram is about to be completed. On pooram day Pooram, Devi sets out to Vadakkumnathan on the elephant backs at 6 a.m. accompanied by Thavil, Vadya, thala and Mela. All the people of the area including the friends and relatives assembled in the temple sufficiently early to have a glimpse of the spectacular possession and show of divine splendor. It is the custom of the people to accompany the Devi to some distance and also decorate the street with flowers and place lighted traditional lamp (Nilavilakku/Nirapara) on either side of the road along which Devi may pass. There will be three elephants and Nadapandi until the possession reaches Kottappuram Railway bridge. From railway bridge two more elephants are added and Panchavadyambegins when it reaches Naduvilal point, the number of elephants rises to Thirteen and Melam starts pooram moves to Sree Moola Sthanam and concludes. Devi enters into the Vadakkumnathan temple after worshipping Lord Siva, comes out through the southern gateway. The whole process is repeated in the night as well. The next day after the Uthram Vilakku in the night, with the de-hoisting of the temple flag, the pooram celebrations comes to an end.
Naithalkavu The myth behind the arrival of the Naithalakkavu Amma to Kuttur is that she came along with “Kunddil Nambiddi” from Arimbur, a place west to Thrissur. Kunddil Nambiddi during his pilgrimage came to PallipuramSiva temple and placed his umbrella down near the temple, after which it became impossible for him to lift it. Knowing that the Amma liked to stay on the same place near Siva, she was installed on a plate having NAI(ghee) with sesame lamp (Thila in Sanskrit). Thus the name Nai-thila- kavu became popular. She is the regional deity of Kuttur, Pamboor & Attoor.
There is no roof on the sanctum sanctorum of the Naithalakkavu Amma. The sanctum sanctorum of Shiva in this temple is one of the largest rounded sanctorum in Kerala. Besides Siva and Naithalakkavu Amma,Sri Durga, Shastra, Ganapathi, Anthimahakalan, Rashasu & Dampathu Rashasu is been present as Upadevas. A Rashasu namedKelumman is installed under Alstonius (Pala) tree outside the walls of the temple. The Naithalakkavu Amma is faced towards west, while Siva is faced to east direction. It is an important temple among Vadakkunthan’s Rishabhagiri temples.
On pooram day Devi starts from the temple by 8.30 am with Nadaswaram and nadapandy. At naduvilal Ganapathy temple there is an “erakky pooja”. The no: elephants will increase to 11 and with pandi melam Devi enters to maidan at 11am. The melam will end at sreemoolasthanam at one noon and Devi moves to vadakkumnathan and leaves through southern gopuram. Devi takes rest at karthyiani temple near Naduvil madom, Pazhayanadakkavu.
Night pooram will start from the Karthyiani temple at 11pm and through Naduvilal enters to maidan with pandi melam and stops atsreemoolasthanam by midnight one o clock. Devi returns to the neithal kavu temple and reaches at 3am In the evening, after arattu, kodikkal pooram the celebration comes to an end. After announcing the pooram on the previous day of thrissur pooram bhagavathy pays a visit to Thiruvambadi and moothedathu man and returns to the abode.
Constituent Temples of Thrissur Pooram
Apart from the principal deities of the Paramekkavu and Thiruvambadi, eight other temple deities participate in the Thrissur Pooram: six Goddesses and two from temples dedicated o Lord Sastha. They are the Kanimangalam and Panakkampilli Sasthas, and the Bhagavathis from Pookkatikara, Choorakotukavu, Laloor, Naithilakavu, Ayyanthole and Chembukavu. The Kanimangalam Sastha is the first God – who is the incarnation of “Brahspathi” (Deva Guru) – which is the premier pooram entering Sree Vadakkumnathan.
It is interesting to note that only Sastha & Devi are participating in the pooram, may be because of Dravidian influence prevailed that time. There is four nos of siva temples, four nos of durga temples and four nos of large ponds are situated at nearly equidistant from the Sree vadakunnatha temple, the silent spectator of the pooram. Siva temple are “Erattachira – South, Chirakkal – west Asokeswaram – North & Midhunapilly – east. Durga temples are Pookkattikkara – karamukukku, Chiyyaram – South, Laloor south west, Ayyanthole, North west Chembookavu – Northeast.
Pooram festival season begins in November and extends up to May. Although there are hundreds of pooram festivals in this season, the most important one is the Thrissur pooram which is celebrated on the Pooram Day of Medom Month of the Malayalam Era (mid-April to mid-May).
Another Pooram of similar significance is the Arattupuzha Pooram which falls on the Pooram Day in the previous Malayalam Month of Meenam.
Pooram festivals are also conducted on other days of the month all over Kerala, the unifying factor being the small processional image of the deity, called the thidambu, which is placed at the base of a golden shield-like kolam, which is mounted atop the tallest male tusker and flanked by other elephants. Though the minimum number of elephants will be three, in the bigger festivals it can be as many as twenty-one or more.
The Trichur Pooram Exhibition
The Trichur Pooram Exhibition, yet another major attraction of the Pooram is The Trichur Pooram Exhibition one of the biggest Trade Fairs in south India. It is an all-India exhibition that generates significant revenue for the Pooram organizers. The Exhibition which starts a month before pooram was conducted in the vicinity of Vadakumnathan. Venues and organizers changed during the course of time. Thrissur Municipality, entrusted Y.M.A to run it in the year 1933 and afterwards to the stadium committee. In the 1964 the two groups of temples requested the municipality to allow them to run the exhibition to meet the expenses of Thrissur Pooram. In this year these 9 temples joined together (the 10th pooram Panemukkuppily stopped long before this) and refused to stage their respective poorams in support of this demand. That year all temples staged the pooram with one elephant just only to meet basic temple rituals. This hurt the feelings of devotees, traders, artists, artisans and people of all walks of life, Tourist Development Corporation, Thrissur Municipality, respective Panchayaths and Government in general. They started negotiations with these 9 temples through their office bearers and ascertained from them the hardships experienced for conducting the Pooram.
Ultimately Thrissur Municipality admitted the demand of the 9 temples was just and genuine and the right to conduct the pooram exhibition was handed over to “Pooram Nadathippukar” (the people who are authorized to conduct poorams). This exhibition is the showcases of pavilions and stalls of major commercial, industrial and entertainment houses in the country.
The exhibition profit could be used exclusively for conducting Thrissur Pooram Festival but unfortunately this was diverted for other purpose and only a part of it is used for Thrissur Pooram Festival. This is against the principle of “philanthropic Purpose”. At the same time the Constituent Poorams of 8 temples find it very difficult to celebrate their festival with pomp and decorum as the office bearers of these temples feel hardship and financial difficulty.
Under these circumstances the 8 temples put-up their demand for participations in the exhibition committee and equal share from the funds generated from it. As the demand turned to civil case and interim judgment, the respective Exhibition committees started to give small contribution to 8 Constituent Poorams annually.
Thrissur Cultural Capital of Kerala
From ancient times, this district has played a significant role in the political history of south India. Thrissur, the name derived from ‘Tiru-Shiva-Perur’ (the town with the name of Lord Shiva) is the cultural capital of Kerala.
Thrissur is a city situated in the centre of Kerala state, India. It has a population of around 5.2 lakhs. It is an important cultural centre, and is known as the “cultural capital” of Kerala. The name Thrissur is derived from “Thiru-Shiva-Perur”, which literally translates to “The city of the Sacred Siva:. In ancient days, Thrissur was known as Vrishabhadripuram as well as Kailasam (Mount Kailas, the abode of Lord Siva in South). From very early times Thrissur has been a centre of learning. With the decline of Buddhism and Jainism due to the growing supremacy of Brahminism and the revival of Hinduism, Thrissur became an important centre of Sanskrit learning. It is believed that the great Hindu Saint, Adi Shankara, was born in answer to the prayer made by his mother at Vadakkunnathan temple. Sankara’s disciplesHastamalaka, Thotaka, Padmapada and Sudhachara established four Madhoms (mutts) in the city, namely the Northern Madhom, the Middle Madhom, the In – Between Madhom and the Southern Madhom respectively.
Other festival of this city “Puli Kali” (Tiger Play) and “Kummatti” (Mask Dance) that form part of Onam celebrations, the national festival of Kerala (Aug-Sept). They consist of enthusiastic processions of men painted and made-up as tigers, all members of different clubs that organize the event. Thousands gather to watch the ‘tigers’ dancing to the beat of drums. Kerala Sahithya Academy, Sangeetha Nataka Academy and Kerala Lalithakala Academy (State Academies of Literature, Fine Arts and Theatrical Arts) are head quartered at Thrissur making the epithet ‘cultural capital of Kerala’ really significant. The internationally acclaimed Kerala Kalamandalam, a state academy for the promotion of classical arts is also situated at Cheruthuruthy, around 30 kms from Thrissur town.
The Thrissur Pooram is the most famous of all Pooram festivals and has been celebrated for over two centuries now. The festival entails spectacular procession of caparisoned elephants and enthralling percussion performances in a continuity of 36 hours beginning at 6 am and stretching up to 12 noon the next day. The festival is undoubtedly a rare treat both for the eyes and the ears.
Unlike most other temple festivals, Thrissur Pooram is participated and conducted by people across all barriers of religion and caste.